Artificial Satellites: Types, Functions, Examples And Characteristics (2022)

What are artificial satellites?
The first artificial satellite and the space race
Characteristics of artificial satellites
types of satellites
space junk
(Video) Different Kinds of Artificial Satellites, and Their Uses
Importance of artificial satellites

We explain what artificial satellites are and the types of satellites that exist.Also, what are its general characteristics and functions.

What are artificial satellites?

Artificial satellites areobjects that human beings manufacture and launch into outer spacewith the aim of orbiting a celestial body (aplanet) or anatural satellite(for example, themoon).They differ from natural satellites, which are celestial bodies that orbit around a planet.

The purpose of these satellites is to obtain certain useful information about the celestial body or natural satellite that they observe.The satellites that orbit theplanet Earthare used to improve telecommunications, since they broadcast signals and allow the operation oftelephones, theInternetanddigital television.They are also used to generateweatherreports and obtain information on the earth’s surface.

Satellites are launched into space andmust pass through theEarth’s atmosphereand achieve orbit around a celestial body, which is usually the Earth.Once there, they must follow a certain route depending on the objective they have.The satellites have an energy recharge that allows them to extend their useful life.However, after power depletion, the satellite is discarded into outer space as space junk.

The first artificial satellite and the space race

Artificial Satellites: Types, Functions, Examples And Characteristics (1) The first satellite was made by the Soviet Union.

(Video) Different Kinds of Artificial Satellites and Their Uses | 6 Grade Science| eLearn K12

The first space satellitewas launched in October 1957 by theSoviet Unionand was calledSputnikI.His goal was to collect information about the highest layers of the atmosphere.

This occurred within the framework ofthe space race that began in the mid-1950s, between the United States and the Soviet Union, whose objective was space exploration with the development of satellites and the sending ofhuman beingsinto space.The United States managed to send its first artificial satellite, calledExplorer I, in 1958 and one of its greatest successes was the discovery of the Van Allen belts.

Subsequently, other countries managed to place artificial satellites in Earth’s orbit.It is believed that there are currently almost 5,000 satellites orbiting the Earthand more than half are already inactive and constitute the so-called space junk.

Due to the scientific development and the necessary financial support, few countries in the world sent satellites into space.Those who lead the list of shipments are: Russia, the United States,France,JapanandChina.

Characteristics of artificial satellites

Artificial Satellites: Types, Functions, Examples And Characteristics (2) Satellites do not have flashing lights or make noise.

The main characteristics of artificial satellites are:

  • They are created by humans.Satellites are launched for a specific purpose that varies from case to case.
  • They usually orbit the planet Earth.Most of the satellites that are built are used to obtain information about the planet Earth or fulfill certain purposes that contribute to human and social development.
  • They can be spherical, cylindrical or conical.Inside they havematerialsof high delicacy and sensitivity.
  • They can be observed from Earth.The most suitable times are two hours before sunrise and two hours aftersunset.
  • They can be scientific or applied.Scientific satellites have the function of studying space, radiation or the planets, and applied satellites have a specific function on Earth, such as meteorological observation, military espionage or telecommunications.
  • They are made up of certain fundamental parts.Satellites are made up of: solar panels, which absorb solar energy and convert it intoelectrical energy(in some cases they can be made up of batteries);antennas, which are responsible for transmitting and receiving information;a control center, which processes the stored information, and a camera or mechanism that collects information.
  • They must have a route or path to follow.When a satellite has a path around a planet, it is called an orbit.If this orbit is elliptical, it will have a farthest point called “apogee” and a closest point called “perigee”.
  • They can be active or inactive.Satellites have a certain useful life, so after a while, or due to certain factors, they fall into disuse.In some cases they remain in Earth orbit as space debris, but in others they can re-enter the atmosphere, where they disintegrate and return to Earth.
  • They are launched in a rocket.In order to place a satellite that orbits the Earth, a powerful drive mechanism is needed, since the satellite must reach a speed of 8 km per second.For this, it is necessary to build a rocket that has the satellite inside, which it will drop once the desired location is reached.

types of satellites

Artificial Satellites: Types, Functions, Examples And Characteristics (3) Solar powered satellites redirect their energy to homes.

(Video) How Satellite Works (Animation)

Satellites can be classified according to two main criteria:

According to its purpose:

  • Communication satellites.They are satellites that help transmit the signals necessary for telecommunications.They usually broadcast television andradiosignals from one point to another.The first such satellite wasTelstar 1.
  • Weather Satellites.They are satellites used to evaluate, measure and predict climatic conditions on Earth.The first such satellite wasTiros-1, launched in 1960.
  • Navigation satellites.They are satellites that are used to know the precise and exact position of something or someone on Earth.They are, for example, those used by the GPS, Galileo and GLONASS systems.
  • Reconnaissance Satellites.They are better known as spy satellites and are used in the military or in intelligence services.
  • astronomical satellites.They are satellites that are manufactured to observegalaxies, planets, asteroids or other astronomical objects.
  • Solar powered satellites.They are satellites that serve as a power source.They receive energy from the sun and redirect it to the antennas of homes on Earth.

According to the type of orbit:

  • Low Earth Orbit.They are satellites that are located a short distance from the earth’s surface, between 700 and 1400 km, and their orbital period is between 80 and 150 minutes.
  • Mean Earth orbit or intermediate circular orbit.They are satellites that are located between 9,000 and 20,000 km and their orbital period can be between 10 and 14 hours.
  • Geostationary orbit.They are satellites that are 35,786 km away from theequator.These satellites always remain on the same place on Earth, that is, they do not rotate.

space junk

Artificial Satellites: Types, Functions, Examples And Characteristics (4) A satellite can disintegrate and enter the atmosphere.

After its useful life or the collection of necessary data,an artificial satellite can be left orbiting a celestial body without any use.Therefore, it is said to become space debris.

Space debris is often a risk to spacecraft launched from Earth into space, because these loose satellite debris can damage or destroy them.

If the satellite is low, it can disintegrate and enter the Earth’s atmosphere in pieces.

(Video) Satellite and Its Types

Importance of artificial satellites

Artificial satellites that manage to position themselves in Earth’s orbit areessential for the development of the human speciesand life insociety.They are used both in the field of scientific research and development, as well as in telecommunications andmeteorology.

On the one hand, satellites are used forscientific researchsince many of them are sent into space with the aim ofexploring other planets or bodies and detectingmeteorites.In addition, they allow observing life on Earth and studying phenomena such asdeforestation, different types ofrelief, sea level,pollutionandexploring inhospitable regions or regions difficult to access for humans.

Satellites are essential to obtain useful information, such as climate data at a specific point on the planet or that necessary for the preparation of maps.They are also responsible for thedevelopment of GPS-type technologythat allows knowing the almost exact position of any object on the earth’s surface.

Artificial satellites are of great importance in the field of telecommunications because theytransmit messages and information from one point on the planet to another.Communication satellites send and receive signals that allow the development oftechnologiesand means ofcommunicationsuch as television, radio, cell phones and the Internet.

natural satellites

Unlike artificial satellites, which are created by humans, natural satellites are those thatexist naturally in space.

Natural satellites are celestial bodies (objects located in space) that orbit around a planet (although bodies that orbit around other celestial bodies are also often called satellites).The most recognized case of a natural satellite is the Moon, which is the only natural satellite that orbits the planet Earth.In many cases, the term moon is often used as a synonym for natural satellite.

Other natural satellites are:the four main satellites ofJupiter: Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto;the largest satellite ofSaturn: Titan;the two satellites ofMars: Deimos and Phobos;and the main satellites of Uranus: Titania, Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel and Oberon.

(Video) Artificial Satellites - Basics physics concepts

The above content published atCollaborative Research Groupis for informational and educational purposes onlyand has been developed by referringreliable sources and recommendations from technology experts. We do not have any contact with official entities nor do we intend to replace the information that they emit.

FAQs

What are the 3 types of artificial satellites? ›

What are the types of artificial satellites explain their functions? ›

Solution
Type of satelliteFunction of satellite
Weather satelliteStudy and prediction of weather
Communication satelliteEstablish communication between different location in the world through the use of specific waves
Broadcast satelliteTelecasting of television programs
3 more rows

What is artificial satellite with examples? ›

A man-made satellite is a machine that is launched into space and orbits around a body in space. Examples of man-made satellites include the Hubble Space Telescope and the International Space Station.

What are the main types of artificial satellites? ›

Based on their purpose, there are two kinds of artificial satellites. They are geostationary satellites and polar satellites.

How many artificial satellites are there? ›

However in 2021, almost 850 satellites have been launched as marked by the end of April, which is 66.25% of 2020.
...
Causes for the growth in the number of satellites.
Number of satellitesMain purpose
1832 satellitesCommunications purpose
906 satellitesEarth Observation
5 more rows
28 May 2021

What are the uses of satellites? ›

They help us to talk to each other and stay connected; they provide important information about our planet by monitoring weather and climate change; and they help us travel safely in our cars, ships, and planes. Here are some examples of the types of satellites used every day across the world.

What is the name of artificial satellite? ›

List of Indian Satellites – (1975 – 2021)
Launch yearSatelliteImportance
2013INSAT-3Meteorological Satellite
2013GSAT-7Advanced multi-band communication satellite dedicated for military purpose
2013Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM)India's first Mars orbiter
2014GSAT-14Geostationary communication satellite
76 more rows

What is artificial satellite Name any two types of artificial satellite and state their functions? ›

Artificial satellite are object that are purposely placed into orbit around Earth, other planets or the sun. Some types of satellite are: Astronomical satellite: Used for observation of different planet, stars, galaxies etc. Weather satellites: Monitor earth weather and climate.

What is artificial satellite give examples Class 8? ›

Answer: Man-made satellites which revolve around Earth and other planets are known as artificial satellites. These are different from natural satellites. Artificial satellites are sent into space by rocket or some satellite launching vehicle.

What are the two main satellites? ›

There are two major types of satellites; natural and man-made. Natural satellites would be, for example, our moon. However, within the scope of man-made satellites, there are several different types. Man-made satellites are classified according to the type of orbit they are in, as this then dictates their use.

What are the different types of satellite system? ›

There are three different types of satellite systems.
  • International satellite communication system INTELSAT.
  • Domestic satellite system DOMSAT.
  • Search and rescue system SARSAT.

What is active and passive satellite? ›

Active Satellites: Active Satellites, unlike passive satellites, amplify the transmitted signals before re-transmitting it back to Earth, ensuring excellent signal strength. Passive satellites were the earliest communication satellite, but now almost all the new ones are active satellites.

What are the examples of satellite? ›

A satellite is a moon, planet or machine that orbits a planet or star. For example, Earth is a satellite because it orbits the sun. Likewise, the moon is a satellite because it orbits Earth. Usually, the word "satellite" refers to a machine that is launched into space and moves around Earth or another body in space.

What are the advantages of artificial satellite? ›

Artificial satellites can collect more data at once than any other device present on earth. It can collect data so quickly. Satellites can see space better than any telescope present on earth. Artificial satellites can be used to communicate.

What are the characteristics of artificial satellite? ›

Key features

Unlike what happens with natural satellites such as the moon, artificial satellites are man-made. These move around an object that is larger than them since they are attracted by the force of gravity. They are usually very sophisticated machines that have revolutionary technology.

What is satellite explain? ›

A satellite is an object that moves around a larger object. Earth is a satellite because it moves around the sun. The moon is a satellite because it moves around Earth. Earth and the moon are called "natural" satellites. But usually when someone says "satellite," they are talking about a "man-made" satellite.

What are the uses of Polar Satellite? ›

Polar orbits are used for Earth-mapping, reconnaissance satellites, as well as for some weather satellites. The Iridium satellite constellation uses a polar orbit to provide telecommunications services.

Who made the first satellite? ›

Fifty years ago, on October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik, the first man-made satellite, shocking the American public and beginning the Space Age. People had been dreaming of space travel for some time before the launch of Sputnik.

Which country launched the first artificial satellite? ›

On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched the earth's first artificial satellite, Sputnik I.

What are the 3 main uses of satellites? ›

What are satellites used for? (and why they matter)
  • Earth Observation and Imagery. Satellites can provide an image of the surface of the Earth. ...
  • Communication. Satellites can enable communication services on the ground. ...
  • Navigation. ...
  • Navigation. ...
  • Communication.

What was the first satellite? ›

On Oct. 4, 1957, Sputnik 1 successfully launched and entered Earth's orbit. Thus, began the space age. The successful launch shocked the world, giving the former Soviet Union the distinction of putting the first human-made object into space.

What are parts of satellite? ›

Antennas: Satellite antenna systems are used to receive and transmit signals to and from Earth. Command and Data Handling: The operational heart of a satellite, command and control systems monitor every aspect of the satellite and receive commands from Earth for operation.

How many satellites are in space? ›

How Many Satellites Are in Orbit Around Earth? Earth has 4,550 satellites in orbit, as of Sept. 1, 2021.

What are the two artificial satellites of India? ›

Aryabhata launched on 19.04. 1975 was the first Indian satellite. Bhaskara-I launched on 07.06.

How are artificial satellites launched? ›

All satellites today get into orbit by riding on a rocket or by riding in the cargo bay of a space shuttle. Several countries and businesses have rocket launch capabilities, and satellites as large as several tons make it safely into orbit on a regular basis.

What is meant by artificial satellite give an example of the same with its function? ›

A man made object revolving around a planet in a fixed orbit is known as artificial satellites. Based on their functions, satellites are classified as following: Type of satellite. Function of satellite. Weather satellite.

What is an artificial satellite name 3 artificial satellites? ›

INSAT, IRS, Kalpana-1, EDUSAT are artificial satellites.

What is an artificial satellite class 11? ›

Artificial satellite is a man-made device orbiting around the earth, moon or another planet transmitting to earth scientific information or used for communication. These satellite revolve around the planets and prvided all the information about planet through satellite imagery.

What is meant by artificial satellite Write the importance of artificial satellite? ›

Artificial satellites are used to study the Earth, other planets, to help us communicate, and even to observe the distant Universe. Satellites can even have people in them, like the International Space Station and the Space Shuttle. The first artificial satellite was the Soviet Sputnik 1 mission, launched in 1957.

What is an artificial satellite class 6? ›

Solution : If a manmade object revolves around the earth or any other planet in a fixed orbit it is called an artificial satellite.

What was the first artificial satellite Site 2? ›

Sputnik 1 (/ˈspʌtnɪk, ˈspʊtnɪk/; see § Etymology) was the first artificial Earth satellite.
...
Sputnik 1.
Spacecraft properties
Period96.20 minutes
Instruments
Radio transmitter 20.005 and 40.002 MHz
Sputnik program Sputnik 2 →
41 more rows

What are two key characteristics of a natural satellite? ›

A natural satellite is a non-artificial celestial body that orbits another. Satellites are normally smaller in size than the body it is continually circling. This movement is due to the attraction exerted by the force of gravity of the larger body on the smaller one.

Is Sun a satellite? ›

A satellite is anything that orbits around a larger object. A natural satellite is any celestial body in space that orbits around a larger body.
...
Other natural satellites in our Solar System.
Natural satelliteEarth
Satellite ofSun
Orbital speed (average)29.8 km/s
Time for one orbit365.26 days
10 more columns
27 Mar 2013

How many types of satellite orbits are there? ›

There are essentially three types of Earth orbits: high Earth orbit, medium Earth orbit, and low Earth orbit. Many weather and some communications satellites tend to have a high Earth orbit, farthest away from the surface.

What are the uses of geostationary and polar satellites? ›

Ans : Over the entire Earth, polar-orbiting satellites provide pictures and air soundings of temperature and moisture data. Geostationary satellites orbit 22,000 miles above the equator, spin at the same rate as the Earth and focus on the same spot all of the time.

What is LEO and MEO satellite? ›

orbits: low Earth orbit (LEO), medium Earth orbit (MEO), and geostationary or geosynchronous orbit (GEO). LEO satellites are positioned at an altitude between 160 km and 1,600 km (100 and 1,000 miles) above Earth. MEO satellites operate from 10,000 to 20,000 km (6,300 to 12,500 miles) from Earth.

What are active satellites? ›

An active satellite is one which has transmitting equipment aboard, such as a transponder, a device which receives a signal from Earth, amplifies it, and retransmits the same signal back to Earth (either immediately or after a delay).

What is a passive satellite? ›

A passive satellite is the one that just reflects the signal from one earth station to other earth station(or stations) without any amplification or retransmission.

What is the major function of a satellite transponder? ›

The term “satellite transponder” refers collectively to a transmitter-receiver subsystem on board the satellite that processes, amplifies and retransmits a range of frequencies (the transponder bandwidth) to another location/terminal/antenna on the earth.

How many artificial satellites are there? ›

Communications satellites are used for television, telephone, radio, internet, and military applications. As of 1 January 2021, there are 2,224 communications satellites in Earth orbit.

What is the name of artificial satellite? ›

List of Indian Satellites – (1975 – 2021)
Launch yearSatelliteImportance
2013INSAT-3Meteorological Satellite
2013GSAT-7Advanced multi-band communication satellite dedicated for military purpose
2013Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM)India's first Mars orbiter
2014GSAT-14Geostationary communication satellite
76 more rows

What are examples of natural satellites? ›

Planets, asteroids and comets orbit around stars such as our Sun and so can also be thought of as natural satellites. Our Solar System has eight official planets as well as millions of minor planets, asteroids, comets and other objects orbiting around the Sun. All of these can be thought of as natural satellites.

How many artificial satellites are there in space? ›

In May 2021, SpaceX has launched 172 Starlink satellites in just three launches making their constellation over 1,600, whereas the UK Government part-owned OneWeb has launched 72 satellites in 2021.
...
Causes for the growth in the number of satellites.
Number of satellitesMain purpose
906 satellitesEarth Observation
6 more rows
28 May 2021

What are the uses of satellites? ›

They help us to talk to each other and stay connected; they provide important information about our planet by monitoring weather and climate change; and they help us travel safely in our cars, ships, and planes. Here are some examples of the types of satellites used every day across the world.

What are the benefits of artificial satellites? ›

The five uses of artificial satellites are: It is used for weather forecasting and for giving advance warning of floods and cyclones. It is used for communication such as long distance transmission of television programme, radio, telephone calls and internet.

Who made the first satellite? ›

Fifty years ago, on October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik, the first man-made satellite, shocking the American public and beginning the Space Age. People had been dreaming of space travel for some time before the launch of Sputnik.

What are the two main types of satellites? ›

A satellite is an object in space that orbits or circles around a bigger object. There are two kinds of satellites: natural (such as the moon orbiting the Earth) or artificial (such as the International Space Station orbiting the Earth).

What is artificial satellite write any two types of artificial satellite? ›

Artificial satellite are object that are purposely placed into orbit around Earth, other planets or the sun. Some types of satellite are: Astronomical satellite: Used for observation of different planet, stars, galaxies etc. Weather satellites: Monitor earth weather and climate.

What is artificial satellite give examples Class 8? ›

Answer: Man-made satellites which revolve around Earth and other planets are known as artificial satellites. These are different from natural satellites. Artificial satellites are sent into space by rocket or some satellite launching vehicle.

What are the characteristics of natural satellite? ›

A natural satellite is a non-artificial celestial body that orbits another. Satellites are normally smaller in size than the body it is continually circling. This movement is due to the attraction exerted by the force of gravity of the larger body on the smaller one.

What is the name of satellite of Earth? ›

The moon is a satellite because it moves around Earth. Earth and the moon are called "natural" satellites.

What is the first artificial satellite to orbit Earth? ›

On Oct. 4, 1957, Sputnik 1 successfully launched and entered Earth's orbit. Thus, began the space age. The successful launch shocked the world, giving the former Soviet Union the distinction of putting the first human-made object into space.

Where are satellites located? ›

Although the space beyond Earth's atmosphere is vast, man-made satellites are typically located in one of the three popular orbital regimes: low earth orbit, medium earth orbit and geosynchronous orbit.

How many satellites are there in Earth? ›

How Many Satellites Are in Orbit Around Earth? Earth has 4,550 satellites in orbit, as of Sept. 1, 2021.

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